Property 
Word Formula 
Mathematic Equation 
Cylinder Force lbs.(Pounds of Force) 
Force=Pressure (psi) x Net Area (in²) 
F=PA 
Fluid Motor Speed RPM (Revolutions per Minute) 
Speed = 231 x Flow Rate (GPM) F.M. Displacement (in³/rev.) 
n = 231 Q d 
Fluid Pressure psi (Pounds per Square Inch) 
Pressure = Force (lbs) Area (in ²) 
P= F 
Fluid Motor Torque lbin (Inch Pounds) 
Torque = Pressure (psi) x F.M. Displacement (in³/rev.) 2π 
T= Pd 2π 
Torque= Horsepower x 63025 RPM 
T = 63025 hp n 

Torque = Flow Rate (GPM) x Pressure (psi) x 36.77 RPM 
T=36.77 Q P N 

Fluid Motor Power hp (Horsepower) 
Horsepower = Torque (lbsin) x RPM 63025 
hp= Tn 63025 
Cylinder Area Extend in² (Square Inches) 
Area = π/(4 x Bore Diameter ²)  A = .7854 D² 
Cylinder Area Retract (w/rod) in² (Square Inches) 
Area = (π/4 x Bore Diameter²) – (π/4 x Rod Diameter²) 
A= (.7854 Db²)– (.7854 Dr²) 
Cylinder Volume G (Gallons of Fluid) 
Volume = Net Area (in²) x Stroke (in) 231 
V = A L 231 
Cylinder Power hp (Horsepower) 
Horsepower = Pressure (psi) x Flow Rate (GPM) 
hp = P Q 1714 
Cylinder Velocity ft/s (Feet per Second) 
Velocity = 231 x Flow Rate (GPM) 
v= .3208 Q A 
Pump Outlet Flow 
Flow = RPM x Pump Displacement (in³/rev.) 231  Q= nd 231 
Flow Rate Through Piping ft/s Velocity (Feet per Second) 
Velocity= .3208 x Flow Rate Through I.D. (GPM) 
v=.3208Q A 
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